Spectacular Journey to Africa by Honey Buzzard

What an amazing story!! This is from the BirdGuides.Com

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A young European Honey Buzzard, satellite tagged by the Roy Dennis Foundation at a nest near Forres, Scotland, in mid-August, has already reached the African continent – albeit via a remarkably risky route that included two long sea crossings.

The bird, ‘620’, was tagged on 11 August and remained in the vicinity of her natal woodland until early September. Her first significant flight came on 11 September, when she moved 50 km to the east, aided by a stiff breeze.

“Doth the hawk (or buzzard) fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?” (Job 39:26 KJV)

Young European Honey Buzzards, such as this one, often end up taking more convoluted migrations south in their first autumn than the more experienced adults (Per Schans Christensen).

However, this could have given no clues for the extraordinary events that took place on 12-13 September. Clear skies and a brisk westerly wind on the morning of 12th encouraged the young honey buzzard to continue her eastward journey, although the Aberdeenshire coast seemingly provided no deterrant – she continued out to sea just north of Aberdeen at around 11.20 am, with the next GPS position logging her at an altitude of 477 m some 57 km out to sea, south-east of the Scottish city.

She continued on an easterly trajectory and, as darkness fell, she was only half-way across the North Sea. Flying through the night, the next tag fix at 2.34 am placed her a further 282 km east of the previous evening’s reading. By 6.30 am, she reached the Danish coast safely, having made a 640-km sea crossing in a non-stop 19-hour flight, largely during the hours of darkness – hugely impressive given it was the bird’s first long-distance movement since fledging the nest.

After a couple of days’ recuperation, her southward journey recommenced as she gradually made her way through Denmark, reaching Germany by the evening of 17th. She continued on a south-westerly route, skirting the western border of Germany and entering south-east Belgium on 20th, roosting in the country that evening. The south-westerly trajectory continued over the following five days, and ‘620’ had reached Clermont-Ferrand, France, by the evening of 25th.


Juvenile European Honey Buzzard photographed on migration in Denmark – a route used by many youngsters of this species, including ‘620’ (Morten Scheller Jensen).

At this point, it seemed as if the south-westerly route would continue, taking the bird into Iberia and, most likely, across the Strait of Gibraltar, which is a well-practised spring and autumn migration route for adult European Honey Buzzards. However, ‘620’ had other ideas.

After two days near Clermont-Ferrand, she flew due south to a wood near Montpellier on the afternoon of 27th. Her migration recommenced the next morning and by 8.40 am she was at the coast. But, instead of following this south-west into Spain, strong north-westerly winds encouraged her to fly directly out to sea.

As she moved south over the Mediterranean Sea the wind veered to a north-easterly and, with a brisk tailwind, her flying speed reached 87 km/h as she flew at altitudes of up to 750 m. By 1 pm she had reached Menorca – but did not land there, instead continuing southwards. By 8.30 pm, the wind had dropped and she was flying due west, having travelled almost 750 km over open sea in 12 hours of continuous flight.

Satellite data suggests she rested on a boat for a couple of hours in the middle of the night, before recommencing her journey south. Finally, by 12.50 pm the following day, she reached the Algerian coast, completing a 1,000-km migration over open sea in just over 28 hours – an astonishing feat for such a young bird tackling its first migration. Not done there though, the young honey buzzard continued inland for a further 160 km, roosting in mountains on the northern edge of the Sahara. It then made a further 60-km movement south and roosted in one of the last patches of woodland on the north side of the Sahara on the evening of 29th.


The movements of young European Honey Buzzard ‘620’ between 11 and 29 September, from Scotland to Algeria via Denmark, Germany and France (Roy Dennis Foundation).

This amazing journey shows just how treacherous life can be for migrant birds, especially youngsters in their first autumn, yet also exhibits the impressive feats that they are capable of. But the journey isn’t done there, with the world’s largest desert still left to negotiate. As the Roy Dennis Foundation wrote on its blog on 30 September: “After two very long sea crossings, the young honey buzzard now faces another daunting challenge – her first flight across the Sahara.”

Following 620’s exploits at www.roydennis.org/category/honey-buzzard-620.

“Was it through your know how that the hawk learned to fly, soaring effortlessly on thermal updrafts? Did you command the eagle’s flight, and teach her to build her nest in the heights,” (Job 39:26-27 MSG) [I don’t use this version normally, but I liked these verses, in respect to this story.]

What A Creator!!

Bible Birds – Buzzard

Wordless Birds

Emma Foster’s Directionally Challenged Goose

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) by Ian

Walter the Directionally Challenged Goose by Emma Foster

Once there was a large Canadian goose named Walter. He lived in the north beside a little pond, and he went south for the winter. Sometimes he got lost because he didn’t know which way was North and which way was South. Walter was directionally challenged. On the times he did not get lost, he usually stayed by the beach where it was warm.

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) ©USFWS

Is That South?

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) by Ian

Or Is That South?

Walter loved to stay by his little pond because it had just the right amount of grass, the water was always cool, and he always had plenty to eat. After successfully making his way back to the pond after flying south for the winter, Walter looked forward to relaxing in the warm spring sun. However, he noticed that it was a bit colder than he remembered it being at that time of year.

Walter started thinking. Maybe he had come back too early or maybe he had come back too late and it was already winter again. A few moments later it started to snow, and Walter began to shiver. He decided that he would just have to go back south for the rest of the winter, though he first had to figure out which way South was again. After thinking for another minute in the snow, Walter soared into the sky and began flying, nearly running into a few trees in the process.

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) by Kent Nickel

After flying for what felt like hours, Walter thought that the air seemed a bit warmer. He didn’t know if he was South yet because he hadn’t found a beach or anything. Eventually, however, he found a large lake that seemed like the perfect place to spend the winter. Walter dove down toward the lake, skimming down to what he thought was water.

Bang! Walter flew straight into a giant garage door then tumbled down toward the water. The garage door was so close to the lake that Walter accidentally misdirected his flight by a few feet. He felt fine, but he decided to lie there for a few minutes before getting up. After a while, he fell asleep.

When Walter woke up, he realized he was in a small cage. He flailed about trying to get out. He was afraid because he didn’t know where he was, but he was able to calm down when a lady came in and gave him some food. Walter noticed a while later that his foot was bandaged.

Canadian Goose with injured foot

Walter stayed at the veterinary clinic for a few days while his foot healed. When he was able to walk a little better, he waddled around the clinic, where he met new people. The veterinarians at the clinic always said hello when Walter wandered into the front lobby, and he always had plenty to eat. He grew very comfortable at the clinic because he was never lonely.

A few days later, some of the vets took Walter to the lake where he had attempted to land earlier and set him free. For a while, he kept following them back to the truck because he didn’t want them to leave.

When the truck pulled away, Walter sat by the lake, sad. After a few minutes of thinking, he suddenly came up with a good idea. He flew up into the air, swooped down, and hit the same garage door again, though this time lightly enough so that he wouldn’t get injured as badly.

The veterinarians came back and took him to the clinic, even though Walter was perfectly fine this time. The vets at the clinic ultimately decided to let Walter stay since he liked it there so much, and Walter was very happy now because he didn’t have to worry about which way was South and which way was North.


Lee’s Addition:

Wow! Emma. Another great story. This is very interesting, especially because of all the birds that are migrating north now. I hope there aren’t any other “directionally challenged” birds facing Walter’s dilemma.

Maybe Walter should have prayed and read Psalm 143:8 before he travels.

“Cause me to hear thy lovingkindness in the morning; for in thee do I trust: cause me to know the way wherein I should walk [FLY], for I lift up my soul unto thee.” (Psalms 143:8 KJV)

See Bird Tales For More of Emma’s Stories

 

 

Woodstock’s Migration

Snoopy and Woodstock - Spring Migration

Snoopy and Woodstock – Spring Migration

“Even the stork in the sky Knows her seasons; And the turtledove and the swift and the thrush Observe the time of their migration; But My people do not know The ordinance of the LORD.” (Jeremiah 8:7 NASB)

As Spring comes, the birds start their travel back to their normal habitat. It is amazing how far birds travel in their annual migrations. In Why Get In The Ark When You Can Fly?, the Willow Warbler migrates up to 12,000 km each year. [7,456.45 miles].

The article,  Awaiting A Robin – Dorothy Malcolm, Mrs. Malcolm is waiting for the Robins to stop for a rest in her yard. They will be migrating [traveling] from areas in the south, and going back to their northern homes. The Family Circus today shows the birds resting and eating before they take off again.

Family Circus - Birds Walking

Family Circus – Birds Walking

Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) Flock walking around resting their wings ©WikiC

Migration Is Starting And The Birds Are Heading Out was posted when the birds headed south. Bible Birds – Hawk Migration explains much more about migrating.

The two cartoons are copyrighted by ©Bill Keane and ©Peanuts

Wordless Birds

Why Get In The Ark When You Can Fly?

Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) ©WikiC

An article in the latest issue of Answers in Genesis Magazine, “As The Bird Flies,”, p.20, tells about the Willow Warbler. This little bird weighs only “0.4 ounce (10 g) … and migrate more than 8,000 miles (13,000 km) from eastern Siberia to Kenya and Tanzania in Africa.”

The article goes on to tell how much research has been done with this bird and its migratory habits. The internet has many articles about this fantastic avian wonder from the Lord.

“All populations are highly migratory, with the subspecies P. t. yakutensis migrating up to 12,000 km from eastern Siberia to southern Africa along the Asian – East African Flyway, one of the longest migrations of any for a bird of its size. Approximate timings are:

October to March: wintering in sub Saharan Africa.
Mid March to mid May: migrates and arrives in the breeding range.
Late April to August: breeding season, usually only one brood but rarely two.
August to October: migrates back to Africa.” [Wikipedia – Willow Warbler]

Answers article continues with this remark: “Their surprisingly complex navigational abilities showcase the Creator’s ingenious design”

They then challenge those who sort of believe in creation, but the flood gives them problems. Many only believe in a “Local Flood.” My take on this and theirs is: Why Get In The Ark When You Can Fly? “Why couldn’t the animals just leave the area instead of getting on a ship, especially if a bird that weights less than a few paper clips can trave more than 8,000 miles?”

“In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah’s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.” (Genesis 7:13-14 KJV)

“And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.” (Genesis 7:19-23 KJV)

Wordless Birds

Awaiting A Robin – Dorothy Malcolm

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) by Ian

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) by Ian

It has been 10 years since I’ve seen a robin in my yard. When they came then, it was an amazing sight which I have cherished. Once there was a Baltimore Oriole, however, that was many years ago. In the meantime, there are a variety that come to my feeder and the neighborhood for which I am happy about and keep food out for them.

Puzzle by a window ©Pxhere

I sit at a table which always has a puzzle on it, and if I don’t make sudden moves, I enjoy watching them. Of course the Sandhill Cranes walk around the neighborhood, The Cooper’s Hawks and Crows don’t come to my yard, but I see them in the trees as I walk.

The regular visitors are Blue Jays, Red-winged Blackbirds, Red-headed Woodpecker, Turtle Doves, Titmice, and Sparrows.

American Robin (Turdus migratorius)by Raymond Barlow

American Robin)by Raymond Barlow

In my heart I’m longing for the joy of seeing just one Robin. Maybe it will happen this spring.

2/22/19 Dorothy Malcolm


“But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.” (John 11:22 KJV)

Lee’s Addition:

It has been awhile since Dottie (Dorothy) has written an article for us. I asked her if she would like to write another one. Here is her latest birdwatching desire. The verse is one I have used while birdwatching. I have asked the Lord to please have the bird in that bush come out where I can see it better. Maybe even take a photo. Not surprising, some have appeared to my delight. I think the Lord cares about our desires, especially when observing His Creation. Dottie, we are praying that the Lord will let some Robins land in your yard when they start migrating back north this spring. Stay Tuned!

If you have missed some of Dottie (Dorothy’s) stories, they are listed below. She is also Emma Foster’s grandmother. Humm! Wonder if that is where Emma started her interest in her birdwatching tales? Emma’s Stories

Dorothy (Dottie) Belle Malcolm’s:

Migration Is Starting And The Birds Are Heading Out

Common Cranes in Israel. Many species of crane gather in large groups during migration and on their wintering grounds

Common Cranes in Israel. Many species of crane gather in large groups during migration and on their wintering grounds

“Even the stork in the sky Knows her seasons; And the turtledove and the swift and the thrush Observe the time of their migration; But My people do not know The ordinance of the LORD.” (Jeremiah 8:7 NASB)

This time of the year, the birds start gathering together to migrate, or move, to their winter place. The birds in Australia, begin flying north to their summer place. But they like to fly in groups. This helps keep them secure and going in the right direction. The cartoon below is cute, but God has built into birds a very accurate way to migrate. A few birds become confused in storms and become “lost.” Even then, many of them still arrive at their destinations.

Migration – Family Circus

The V-formation helps the birds use less energy. This enables the birds to travel the long distances much easier. There are several articles written that you might want to read:

God’s Recipe for the Bar-tailed Godwit

Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) by Nikhil Devasar

God’s Recipe for the Bar-tailed Godwit

Family Circus – God’s good recipe

“Doth the hawk [Bar-tailed Godwit] fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?” (Job 39:26 KJV)

The Bar-tailed Godwit was tracked by a tiny transmitter they attached to her. She flew “nonstop for 7,257 miles (11,679 km) from western Alaska to New Zealand.”

Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) by MAMuin

“What’s more, the bird probably didn’t even glideBar-tailed godwits use forward flapping for flight and “seldom” glide, according to Robert Gill, Jr., lead author of the study.”

As for the humble godwit, its incredible journey and endurance is a fantastic testimony to the Creator’s design in the animal kingdom.

Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) ©USFWS

This is the LORD’S doing; it is marvellous in our eyes.” (Psalms 118:23 KJV)


All quotes from Bird Sets Nonstop Flight Record at 7,257 miles

Answers in Genesis

Bar-tailed Godwit – Audubon

Bar-tailed Godwit – Wikipedia

The Long Christmas Journey

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Oleg Sidorenko

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Oleg Sidorenko

The Long Christmas Journey

~ by Emma Foster

Once there were two birds who lived in Portland, Oregon. Their names were Belinda and Steven and they were pigeons (a.k.a. Rock Doves).

Belinda and Steven lived on top of a stop-and-go light in the middle of a busy street where they had built their nest. They loved the city life so they didn’t mind all of the cars driving by, especially when they honked. They also didn’t mind all of the headlights that lit up the streets at night. Every day, Steven would fly through the city to search for food. And every day lots of cars would drive by.

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Edward Townend

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Edward Townend

As December drew near, it started to get colder. Eventually, snow started to fall. The more snow fell, the colder it became.

Belinda and Steven decided it was time for them to fly down south for the winter. They would spend Christmas down there just as they did every year. They both liked spending Christmas down where it was warm.

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Andrey

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Andrey

They started flying early the next morning because it was going to be a long journey to fly down south. As Belinda and Steven travelled, they were careful to not fly too high when they flew through the mountains because the tops of the mountains were cold and snowy. They flew past many mountains because Belinda and Steven were flying through the Rocky Mountains.

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Ingrid Taylar

Eventually, after several hours, Belinda and Steven reached Death Valley. It was nice and warm there. But Death Valley was a little too warm for them. Fortunately there was a group of road runners that gave them directions to Arizona. Belinda and Steven were already in eastern California so it wasn’t that long of a flight to get there.

Belinda and Steven were able to fly to Arizona and made it there by Christmas Eve. It was nice and warm and the desert was filled with cactuses. Belinda and Steven decorated a cactus with some Christmas decorations they had brought with them so the cactus looked festive.

Together, Belinda and Steven had a wonderful Christmas, and they didn’t even mind that it would still be a long trip back to Oregon. They would have to come back to Arizona next year.

The End

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Ken Slade

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©Flickr Ken Slade


Lee’s Addition:

Storks, doves, swallows, and thrushes all know when it’s time to fly away for the winter and when to come back. But you, my people, don’t know what I demand. (Jeremiah 8:7 CEV)

Thanks, Emma, for telling us about your migrating Pigeon friends, Belinda and Steven. Smart birds for escaping the winter cold up there in the Northwest.

Keep up the great stories. We are all enjoying them and you a gaining quite a fan club. We are looking forward to more stories through this New Year. Happy New Year.

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See more of Emma Foster’s Stories

ABC’s of the Gospel

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Lesson From The Bird’s Nest

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A week ago, we went to Lake Morton in Lakeland for half hour or so. Several of the Swans were sitting on nest and a Peking Duck or a White Mallard was working on her nest. She kept adding twigs and grass to the nest and then walked away.

Have you ever watched a bird build or work on a nest? They add the “walls” and a “floor” and some birds like Weavers, make a “roof” over their nest.

As I watched the bird working on her nest, it reminded me of what was going on at our house. As I mentioned last week, our house was in “disarray” while our “spare” bedroom and two other areas were being worked on. Many spare rooms become a collection of “stuff.” (At least our is)

Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried to Babylon: nothing shall be left, saith the LORD. (Isaiah 39:6 KJV)

This was a warning to the Israelites. We all know that there are good things put in “store.”

Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come. (1 Corinthians 16:2 KJV)

Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life. (1 Timothy 6:19 KJV)

Back to our nest. This verse: “Even the stork in the sky knows her appointed seasons, and the dove, the swift and the thrush observe the time of their migration. But my people do not know the requirements of the LORD.” (Jeremiah 8:7 NIV)

Another lesson we can learn from our birds. They do not load their nest with stuff. Some add colorful threads now and then, but there are no hat racks or closets with different feathers hanging. They do not have to decide what color feather they to wear today. No cooking utensils to worry about. No suitcase ready to pack when it become time to migrate. When it is time to go, they go.

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) with youngstersby Raymond Barlow

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) with youngstersby Raymond Barlow

Must be a lesson there. I am a bit of a pack-rat and it has been interesting around here lately. Especially when all did not go as planned. A mix-up caused a delay, so the disarray has continued longer than expected. Now that the floor is finally completed, I am trying to de-clutter some as “things” are returned to the “spare” room. At least the computer is back up and running. Yeah!

Yep! The birds have the right idea. Lord bless you all as you face your challenges. Maybe the birds will have a hint to help you also.

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Wordless Birds

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Birds Vol 1 #3 – The Return of the Birds

Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) by S Slayton

Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) by S Slayton

Birds Illustrated by Color Photography – Revisited

Vol 1. March, 1897 No. 3

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THE RETURN OF THE BIRDS.

“Everywhere the blue sky belongs to them and is their appointed rest, and their native country, and their own natural home which they enter unannounced as lords that are certainly expected, and yet there is a silent joy at their arrival.”

imgt

HE return of the birds to their real home in the North, where they build their nests and rear their young, is regarded by all genuine lovers of earth’s messengers of gladness and gayety as one of the most interesting and poetical of annual occurrences. The naturalist, who notes the very day of each arrival, in order that he may verify former observation or add to his material gathered for a new work, does not necessarily anticipate with greater pleasure this event than do many whose lives are brightened by the coming of the friends of their youth, who alone of early companions do not change. First of all—and ever the same delightful warbler—the Bluebird, who, in 1895, did not appear at all in many localities, though here in considerable numbers last year, betrays himself. “Did he come down out of the heaven on that bright March morning when he told us so softly and plaintively that, if we pleased, spring had come?” Sometimes he is here a little earlier, and must keep his courage up until the cold snap is over and the snow is gone. Not long after the Bluebird, comes the Robin, sometimes in March, but in most of the northern states April is the month of his arrival. With his first utterance the spell of winter is broken, and the remembrance of it afar off. Then appears the Woodpecker in great variety, the Flicker usually arriving first. He is always somebody’s old favorite, “announcing his arrival by a long, loud call, repeated from the dry branch of some tree, or a stake in the fence—a thoroughly melodious April sound.”

Few perhaps reflect upon the difficulties encountered by the birds themselves in their returning migrations. A voyager sometimes meets with many of our common birds far out at sea. Such wanderers, it is said, when suddenly overtaken by a fog, completely lose their sense of direction and become hopelessly lost. Humming birds, those delicately organized, glittering gems, are among the most common of the land species seen at sea.

The present season has been quite favorable to the protection of birds. A very competent observer says that not all of the birds migrated this winter. He recently visited a farm less than an hour’s ride from Chicago, where he found the old place, as he relates it, “chucked full of Robins, Blackbirds, and Woodpeckers,” and others unknown to him. From this he inferred they would have been in Florida had indications predicted a severe winter. The trees of the south parks of Chicago, and those in suburban places, have had, darting through their branches during the months of December and January, nearly as many members of the Woodpecker tribe as were found there during the mating season in May last.

Alas, that the Robin will visit us in diminished numbers in the approaching spring. He has not been so common for a year or two as he was formerly, for the reason that the Robins died by thousands of starvation, owing to the freezing of their food supply in Tennessee during the protracted cold weather in the winter of 1895. It is indeed sad that this good Samaritan among birds should be defenseless against the severity of Nature, the common mother of us all. Nevertheless the return of the birds, in myriads or in single pairs, will be welcomed more and more, year by year, as intelligent love and appreciation of them shall possess the popular mind.

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) by S Slayton

American Robin (Turdus migratorius) by S Slayton


Lee’s Addition:

Even the stork in the heavens Knows her appointed times; And the turtledove, the swift, and the swallow Observe the time of their coming. But My people do not know the judgment of the LORD. (Jeremiah 8:7 NKJV)

This time of the year the birds head back north, at least in North America. Unfortunately they leave us here in Florida where some of them have been on their winter vacation. Birdwatching excitement slows down for us, but picks up for those of you who have been without your avian friends during the winter. Trust me, they are on the way.  We have been out watching birds several times this last week or so and the winter birds have left or are packing their bags and folding up their lounge chairs. We are getting a few of the migrants that are passing through on their way north. They land to rest and feed, then off they go again. Keep your eyes alert, northern friends, the birds are coming.

Birds Illustrated by Color Photograhy Vol 1 March 1897 No 3 - Cover

Birds Illustrated by Color Photography – Revisited

The above article is an article in the monthly serial for March 1897 “designed to promote Knowledge of Bird-Live.” These include Color Photography, as they call them, today they are drawings. There are at least three Volumes that have been digitized by Project Gutenberg.

To see the whole series of – Birds Illustrated by Color Photography – Revisited

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(Information from Wikipedia and other internet sources)

Next Article – The Black Tern

Previous Article – The Crow and the Common Crow

Wordless Toucan

Links:

Birds of the Bible – Migration
Interesting – Migration and Mechanics of Flight
Interesting Things – Amazing Bird Migration
The Flight of Migratory Birds by Werner Gitt
Bird Migration – Wikipedia
Birds of the Bible – Hawk Migration
Interesting Things – A Lesson from the Stork
Bar-tailed Godwit Migration – Wikipedia
Do Migratory Birds Practice Preventative Medicine?

Ad in Birds Illustrated by Color Photography, 1897

Ad in Birds Illustrated by Color Photography, 1897

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